Toby Mottram has written over 50 scientific publications about many aspects of improving dairy cow management, these are available directly from or you can find most of them on ResearchGate or below. NB some papers are behind payment barriers.

Recent Conference Papers about rumen pH

Kröger I., Neubauer V., Humer E., Reisinger N., Zebeli Q., Relationship between continuously measured reticuloruminal pH and chews per bolus, milk fat, milk protein and fecal pH in dairy cows. 101– 21st European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition Congress. Cirencester, United Kingdom (September 20-23rd 2017)

Mottram T. T., 2016, Detecting sensor drift in rumen pH data. 1st International Conference on Precision Dairy Farming. Leeuwarden, The Netherlands (21st-23rd June 2016)

Mottram T. T., 2016, Is monitoring rumen pH a routine tool or a seasonal adjustment to new forage quality? Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden 14-15th June 2016. Presentation: Presenting eCow FSC  Full Text: Is monitoring rumen pH a diagnostic or routine tool

Mottram T. T., 2015, The effect of husbandry system on rumen pH in dairy cows. Proceedings of 66th Conference of the EAAP, Warsaw; 09/2015. Presentation: Effect of husbandry system on rumen pH

Mottram T.T, Jeremy Hamilton, Richard Cooper, 2014, Measuring rumen pH on farms with wireless telemetry boluses shows the impact of farm routine. British Cattle Veterinary Association Congress, Hinckley Island, Leicestershire; 10/2014 Presentation: BCVA TM 181014

Mottram T.T., 2014, Dairy farm evaluation of rumen pH bolus data: identifying the benefits, case studies of rumen pH, 65th EAAP conference Bratislava, Abstract no. 18716.  Paper: EAAP2014 18716 Case Studies in Rumen pH


Book Chapters:

Toby Mottram: Animal Interactions with their Environment: Dairy Cows in Intensive Systems. Quantitative Aspects of Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism, 2nd edited by J. Dijkstra, J.M.Forbes, J.France, 01/2005: chapter 25: pages 663-680; CABI Publishing., ISBN: 0-85199-814-3


A. Bach, I. Guasch, G. Elcoso, J. Duclos, H. Khelil-Arfa: Modulation of rumen pH by sodium bicarbonate and a blend of different sources of magnesium oxide in lactating dairy cows submitted to a concentrate challenge (2018) Journal of Dairy Science, In press,

R. E. Coon, T. F. Duffield, T. J. DeVires: Effect of straw particle size on the behaviour, health, and production of early-lactation dairy cows (2018) Journal of Dairy Science, 101(7): 6375-6387,

I.Kröger, E.Humer, V.Neubauer, N.Reisinger, S.Aditya, Q.Zebeli: Modulation of chewing behaviour and reticular pH in nonlactating cows challenged with concentrate-rich diets supplemented with phytogenic compounds and autolyzed yeast (2017) Journal of Dairy Science, 100(12): 9702-9714,

O. Hanušovský, D. Bíro, M. Šimko, B. Gálik, M. Juráček, M. Rolinec, L. Balušíková: The dynamics of the ruminal content pH chnage and its relationship to milk composition (2018) Acta Vet. Biro, 87: 119-126,

V. Neubauer, E. Humer, I. Kröger, T. Braid, M. Wagner, and Q. Zebeli: Differences between pH of indwelling sensors and the pH of fluid and solid phase in the rumen of dairy cows fed varying concentrate levels (2017) Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition: Short Communication, DOI: 10.1111/jpn.12675

C. Villot, B. Meunier, J. Bodin, C. Martin, and M. Silberberg: Relative reticulo-rumen pH indicators for subacute ruminal acidosis detection in dairy cows (2017) Animal, First View, DOI:10.1017/S1751731117001677

C. Villot, C. Martin, B. Meunier, MM. Mialon, M. Silberberg: Relative rumen pH thresholds to predict subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows. EcPLf Annual Conference, Nantes, France; 11/2017

Ondrej Hanušovský, Daniel Bíro, Milan Šimko, Branislav Gálik, Miroslav Juráček, Michal Rolinec, Róbert Herkeľ: Drinking regime evaluation with continuous ruminal monitoring boluses (2017) Acta fytotechn zootechn, 20: 1–5

S. M. Nasrollahi, A. Zali, G. R. Ghorbani, M. Moradi Shahrbabak, M. Heydari Soltan Abadi: Variability in susceptibility to acidosis among high producing mid-lactation dairy cows is associated with rumen pH, fermentation, feed intake, sorting activity, and milk fat percentage (2017) Animal Feed Science and Technology, 228: 72-82,

I. Kröger, V. Neubauer, E. Humer, P. Ertl, N. Reisinger, P. Pourazad, S. Aditya and Q. Zebeli: Supplementation of feed additives to a concentrate-rich diet modulates chewing activity and ruminal pH in Holstein cows (2016) ESVCN Annual Conference, Berlin, Germany; 09/2016

Gerardo Caja, Andreia Castro-Costa and Christopher H. Knight: Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals (2016) Journal of Dairy Research, 83:136-147, doi:10.1017/S0022029916000261

Ondrej Hanušovský, Daniel Bíro, Milan Šimko, Branislav Gálik, Miroslav Juráček, Michal Rolinec, Marián Majlát, Róbert Herkeľ: Continual monitoring of reticulorumenal pH of dairy cows during 45 days (2015) Acta fytotechn. zootechn., 18, 2015(3): 53–55

Toby Mottram: Survey of rumen pH in commercial dairy herds. EAAP Annual Conference, Warsaw, Poland; 08/2015.

Toby Mottram, Jeremy Hamilton, Richard Cooper, Daniel Daly: Measuring rumen pH on farms with wireless telemetry boluses shows the impact of farm routine.  British Cattle Veterinary Association Congress, Hinckley Island, Leicestershire; 10/2014

Toby Mottram: Dairy farm evolution of rumen pH bolus data identifying the benefits. EAAP Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark; 08/2014. Abstract no. 18716

Arnaud Nogues: Commercial Benefits of Routine Monitoring of Rumen pH in Dairy Cows in South West England. 2013

T. T. Mottram, J. McCubbine, S. B. Nimmo:  A novel method of calculating a SARA index by wireless rumen pH telemetry. 2013

Martinez-Ortiz, Carlos A. Everson, Richard M. Mottram, Toby: Video tracking of dairy cows for assessing mobility scores. Joint European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, 10 – 12 September 2013, Leuven, Belgium.

Toby Mottram: Wireless technologies for monitoring grazing animals. Profitable and Sustainable Grazing Systems – Moving Forward with Science; 02/2013.

T. T. Mottram, J. McCubbine: Towards routine monitoring of rumen pH temperature and redox in ruminants. 2013

Claire Turner, Henri Knobloch, John Richards, Peter Richards, Toby T. F. Mottram, D. J. Marlin, Mark A. Chambers: Development of a device for sampling cattle breath.  Biosystems Engineering 06/2012; 112(2):75-81. DOI:10.1016/j.biosystemeng.2012.03.001.

Toby Mottram: Investigating the suitability of electronic identification in livestock.  09/2011; 169(10):247-8. DOI:10.1136/vr.d5466

Toby Mottram, Nick J. Bell: A Novel Method of Monitoring Mobility of Dairy Cows. First North Am. Conf. Precision Dairy Management, Toronto; 10/2010

Phillips, T. Mottram, D. Poppi, D. Mayer, M R McGowan: Continuous monitoring of ruminal pH using wireless telemetry. Animal Production Science 01/2010; DOI:10.1071/AN09027

Toby T Mottram: Is A Lifetime Rumen Monitoring Bolus Possible? The First North American Conference on Precision Dairy Management 2010

Toby Mottram, John Lowe, Michael McGowan, Nancy Phillips: Technical note: A wireless telemetric method of monitoring clinical acidosis in dairy cows. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 11/2008; 64(1-64):45-48. DOI:10.1016/j.compag.2008.05.015

Drysdale T D, Mottram T T and Cumming D R S, 2008 WSN Modelling the Attenuation of Radio Signals by Bovines, Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Paper number 084589, 2008 Providence, Rhode Island, June 29- July 2, 2008.

Kwong K H, Goh H G, Michie C, Andonovic I, Stephen B, Mottram T and Ross D: Wireless Sensor Networks for Beef and Dairy Herd Management. 2008 Rhode Island, ASABE Meeting Presentation, paper number: 084587

Mary-Grace C. Danao, Claire Turner, David C. Cullen and Toby Mottram: Development of a breath output simulator for breath analysis research. ASABE Annual International Meeting. 17-20 June 2007., Minneapolis, MN, USA.; 06/2007

Toby Mottram, Alisa Rudnitskaya, Andrey Legin, Julie L Fitzpatrick, P David Eckersall: Evaluation of a novel chemical sensor system to detect clinical mastitis in bovine milk. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 06/2007; 22(11):2689-93. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2006.11.006

P C Garnsworthy, L L Masson, A L Lock, T T Mottram: Variation of Milk Citrate with Stage of lactation and De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis in Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science 06/2006; 89(5):1604-12. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72227-5

R M Pemberton, T T Mottram, J P Hart: Development of a screen-printed carbon electrochemical immunosensor for picomolar concentrations of estradiol in human serum extracts. Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods 07/2005; 63(3):201-12. DOI:10.1016/j.jbbm.2005.05.002

YF Xu, M Velasco-Garcia, T T Mottram: Quantitative analysis of the response of an electrochemical biosensor for progesterone in milk. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 05/2005; 20(10):2061-70. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2004.09.009

CP Schofield, RD Tillett, NJB McFarlane, TT Mottram, AR Frost, S. Cox: Emerging technology for assessing the composition of livestock. Proceedings of the second European conference on precision livestock farming, 2ECPLF 2005, Uppsala, Sweden, 9-12 June 2005; 01/2005

G. Caplen, T. T. Mottram, A. R. Pickard, S. R. Milligan: A Biosensor‐Based Method for Non‐invasively Monitoring Wildlife Reproduction—The Field Vole (Microtus agrestis) as a Potential Biomarker of Environmental Disruption. Analytical Letters 12/2004; 37(8):1719-1735. DOI:10.1081/AL-120037598

PJ Hobbs, J Webb, TT Mottram, B Grant, TM Misselbrook: Emissions of volatile organic compounds originating from UK livestock agriculture. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 08/2004; 84(11):1414 – 1420. DOI:10.1002/jsfa.1810

Mihaela Badea, Laura Micheli, Maria Cristina Messia, Tiziana Candigliota, Emanuele Marconi, Toby Mottram, Maria Velasco-Garcia, Danila Moscone, Giuseppe Palleschi: Aflatoxin M1 determination in raw milk using a flow injection immunoassay system. Analytica Chimica Acta 520, p. 141 – 148 (2004);  DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2004.05.068

Maria N Velasco-Garcia, Toby Mottram: (02)00236-2 AE}Automation and Emerging Technologies REVIEW PAPER Biosensor Technology addressing Agricultural Problems. Biosystems Engineering 01/2003; 84:1-12. DOI:10.1016/S1537-5110(02)00236-2

Velasco-Garcia, M. N., Mottram, T., Pemberton, R., Hart, J. Field experiments to test a prototype ovulation prediction system based on a disposable amperometric biosensor for progesterone in milk. 2003

Velasco-Garcia, M. N., Mottram, T. T. (2002) Biosensors Technology and Opportunities in Livestock Production. Landwards 57 (2), Information Engineering for Agriculture and Horticulture, pub. SRI 15th May 2001, 16-20.

Pemberton, R.M.; Hart, J.P.; Pickard, Amanda; Velassco-Garcia, M.N. and Mottram, T.T. (2002). Studies towards automated ovulation prediction in the pig industry: an electrochemical immunosensor for oestradiol in saliva [poster presentation]. In: 7th World Congress on Biosensors, 15-17 May 2002, Kyoto, Japan.

R M Pemberton, J P Hart, T T Mottram: An electrochemical immunosensor for milk progesterone using a continuous flow system. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 01/2002; 16(9-12):715-23. DOI:10.1016/S0956-5663(01)00212-3

T. Mottram, M. Velasco-Garcia, P. Berry, P. Richards, J. Ghesquiere, L. Masson: Automatic on line analysis of milk using biosensorsconstituents (urea, ketones, enzymes and hormones) using biosensors. Comparative Clinical Pathology 01/2002; DOI:10.1007/s580-002-8082-z

Mottram T, Masson L (2001): Dumb animals and smart machines the implication of modern milking systems for integrated management of dairy cows. In: Integrated management system for livestock, Occasional publication 28, British Society of Animal Science, Midlothian, pp. 77-84.

T. Mottram, G. Caplen, A. Pickard, S. Milligan: Monitoring wild fauna non invasively. 2001 ASAE Annual International Meeting

Maria N Velasco-Garcia, Toby Mottram: Biosensors in the livestock industry: an automated ovulation prediction system for dairy cows. Trends in Biotechnology 12/2001; 19(11):433-4. DOI:10.1016/S0167-7799(01)01841-8

R M Pemberton, J P Hart, T T Mottram: An assay for the enzyme N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) based on electrochemical detection using screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The Analyst 12/2001; 126(11):1866-71. DOI:10.1039/b104874k

R J Dewhurst, R T Evans, T T Mottram, P Spanĕl, D Smith: Assessment of rumen processes by selected lon-flow-tube mass spectrometric analysis of rumen gases. Journal of Dairy Science 07/2001; 84(6):1438-44. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)70176-2

W.G.F Ditcham, A.H.R Al-Obaidi, D McStay, T T Mottram, J Brownlie, I Thompson: An immunosensor with potential for the detection of viral antigens in body fluids, based on surface second harmonic generation. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 06/2001; 16(3):221-4. DOI:10.1016/S0956-5663(00)00134-2

P. Hobbs, T. M. Misselbrook, T. Cumby, T. T. Mottram: The scope and contribution of volatile organic compounds to pollution from livestock. DOI: 10.13031/2013.4273 Conference: 2001 Sacramento, CA July 29-August 1,2001

Mottram, Toby; Hart, John; Pemberton, Roy: A Sensor Based Automatic Ovulation Prediction System for Dairy Cows. SENSORS AND MICROSYSTEMS. Proceedings of the 5th Italian Conference

Mottram, T T; Lark, R M; Lane, A J P; Wathes, D C; Persaud, K C; Swan, M; Cooper, J M: Techniques to allow the detection of oestrus in dairy cows with an electronic nose. Electronic Noses and Olfaction 2000. 2000;.

O. Lind, A. H. Ipema, C. de Koning, T.T. Mottram, H-J. Hermann: Automatic Milking Review. Bulletin of the IDF 348, 2000

Mottram, T.; Hart, J.; Pemberton, R.: Biosensing techniques for detecting abnormal and contaminated milk. Robotic milking: Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Lelystad, The Netherlands, 17-19 August, 2000.

Mottram, T. T., W.J.F. Ditcham, H. Bolam, L. Short, S. Cammell, D. E. Beever, and P. J. Hobbs. (2000). Dimethyl sulfide and methane in the breath of cows methods of capture and quantification. Project report CR/1031/00/0225. Silsoe Research Institute, Bedfordshire, U.K. 20 pages.

Eduard Llobet, Evor L Hines, Julian W Gardner, Philip N Bartlett, Toby T Mottram: Fuzzy ARTMAP based electronic nose data analysis. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 12/1999;  DOI:10.1016/S0925-4005(99)00288-9

T.T. Mottram, P. Dobbelaar, Y.H. Schukken, P.J. Hobbs, P.N. Bartlett: An experiment to determine the feasibility of automatically detecting hyperketonaemia in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 08/1999; 61(1-61):7-11. DOI:10.1016/S0301-6226(99)00045-7

H.R. Whay, D.A. Whitaker, T.T. Mottram, A.M. Dowell: A veterinary model for the induction of primary nutritional ketosis. Metabolic stress in dairy cows. Occasional Publication No. 24 – British Society of Animal Science 1999

J.W. Gardner, E.L. Hines, F. Molinier, P.N. Bartlett, T.T. Mottram: Prediction of health of dairy cattle from breath samples using neural network with parametric model of dynamic response of array of semiconducting gas sensors. IEE Proceedings – Science Measurement and Technology 04/1999;  DOI:10.1049/ip-smt:19990100

Andy R. Frost, Toby T. Mottram, Clive J. Allen, Rodger P. White: Influence of milking interval on the total bacterial count in a simulated automatic milking system. J Dairy Res 03/1999; 66(1):125-9. DOI:10.1017/S002202999800332X

R.M. Lark, B.L. Nielsen, T.T.  Mottram: A time series model of daily milk yields and its possible use for detection of a disease (ketosis). Animal Science 01/1999; 69:573-582.

Metz, J. H. M., Maltz, E., Mottram, T. T. (1999) Monitoring health and welfare in practice. Cattle Practice 7 (1), 123.

Toby Mottram, D. Whitaker, H.R.Whay, A.M.Dowell: A nutritional model to induce ketosis in bovines. British Society of Animal Science; 01/1999

L.K. Rasmussen, B.L. Nielsen, J E Pryce, T.T. Mottram, R.F. Veerkamp: Risk-factors-associated-with-the-incidence-of-ketosis-in-dairy-cows. Animal Science 1999, 68: 379-386

T. Mottram, H. R. Whay, M. Lark: Report on the potential to develop an automatic ketosis detection system. Silsoe Research Institute, 1998.

B. Prescott, T. T. Mottram, A. J. F. Webster: Effect of food type and location on the attendance to an automatic milking system by daily cows and the effect of feeding during milking on their behaviour and milking characteristics. 10/1998; 67(02). DOI:10.1017/S1357729800009942

T. Mottram, W. Ditcham, A. Al Obaidi and D. McStay: The role of biosensors in sensor development strategy for the dairy industry. Silsoe Research Institute, 1998.

B Prescott, T. T Mottram, A. J. F Webster: Relative motivations of dairy cows to be milked or fed in a Y-maze and an automatic milking system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 04/1998; 57(1):23-33. DOI:10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00112-3

RJ Elliott-Martin, TT Mottram, JW Gardner, PJ Hobbs, PN Bartlett: Preliminary Investigation of Breath Sampling as a Monitor of Health in Dairy Cattle. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 08/1997; 67(4):267-275. DOI:10.1006/jaer.1997.0168

Toby Mottram: Automatic monitoring of the health and metabolic status of diary cows. Livestock Production Science 06/1997;  DOI:10.1016/S0301-6226(97)00029-8

A.R. Frost, C.P. Schofield, S.A. Beaulah, T.T. Mottram, J.A. Lines, C.M. Wathes: A review of livestock monitoring and the need for integrated systems. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 05/1997;  DOI:10.1016/S0168-1699(96)01301-4

Toby Mottram: Requirements for teat inspection and cleaning in automatic milking systems. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 04/1997;  DOI:10.1016/S0168-1699(96)01223-9

P Dobbelaar, T Mottram, C Nyabadza, P Hobbs, R J Elliott-Martin, Y H Schukken: Detection of ketosis in dairy cows by analysis of exhaled breath. The Veterinary quarterly 01/1997; 18(4):151-2. DOI:10.1080/01652176.1996.9694638

C R Bull, N J B McFarlane, Reyer Zwiggelaar, C J Allen, T T Mottram: Inspection of teats by colour image analysis for automatic milking systems. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 05/1996; 15(1). DOI:10.1016/0168-1699(95)00054-2

T. Mottram, R. C. Hall, D. S. Spencer, C. J. Allen, A. Winter: The Role of the Cow in Automatic Teat Cup Attachment. Journal of Dairy Science 08/1995; 78(8):1873-1880. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76812-6

Bull, T. Mottram, H. Wheeler: Optical teat inspection for automatic milking systems. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 03/1995; 12(2):121-130. DOI:10.1016/0168-1699(94)00040-W

T.T. Mottram, H CAROFF, C GILBERT: Modifying the posture of cows for automatic milking. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 08/1994; 41(3-4):191-198. DOI:10.1016/0168-1591(94)90022-1

T. T. Mottram. D. L. O. Smith, R. J. Godwin: Monitoring Milk Flow as an Aid to Management in Automatic Milking Systems. J. agric. Engng Res. (1994) 57, 263-267

A.R. Frost, T.T. Mottram, M.J. Street, R.C. Hall, D.S. Spencer, C.J. Allen: A Field Trial of a Teatcup Attachment Robot for an Automatic Milking System. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 08/1993; 55(4):325–334. DOI:10.1006/jaer.1993.1053

D. Schillingmann, T. T. Mottram: Automatic Milking Development of a Robotic System and Ultrasonic Teat Location. J. agric. Engng Res. (1993) 55, 69-78

Toby Mottram: The Agricultural Engineer. 1992

Toby Mottram: Design and Management of Automatic Milking Systems. Agricultural Engineer Incorporating Soil and Water, Autumn 1992

T. Mottram: Passive Methods of Modifying Cow Posture for Automated and Robotic Milking Systems. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 05/1992; 52(4):285-293. DOI:10.1016/0021-8634(92)80067-3

T T Mottram: Design principles for automatic milking systems. Agricultural Engineer Incorporating Soil and Water, Summer 1991

T.T. Mottram, D.L.O. Smith, R.J. Godwin: Analysis of parlour design parameters for goat milking. Small Ruminant Research 10/1991; 6(1-2):1-13. DOI:10.1016/0921-4488(91)90002-8

T. Mottram, D. L. O. Smith, R. J. Godwin: Development of an Improved Automatic Cluster Removal System for Dairy Animals. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 05/1991; 49(1):73-84. DOI:10.1016/0021-8634(91)80029-E